|Rectal Propranolol Controls Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity Post Brain Injury
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) affects approximately 10% of survivors of acquired brain injury and is associated with substantial morbidity. The most effective maintenance therapies include oral β-blockers and α-2 antagonists. May et al. of the University of Kentucky HealthCare reported the use of rectal propranolol for symptomatic control of PSH in a critically ill patient with an altered gastrointestinal tract for whom oral intake was contraindicated. This is the first case report to describe successful use of propranolol suppositories in a clinical environment. This case supports the use of propranolol suppositories as a potential alternative route when oral administration is not possible.
Pharmacotherapy. 2015 Apr;35(4):e27-31.
Propranolol hydrochloride is a beta blocker used to treat high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, heart disease, pheochromocytoma, and certain types of tremors. Propranolol is a drug of choice for many diseases such as infantile hemangioma occurring in neonates and infants, an age group for which oral suspensions are required almost exclusively. Many adult and elderly patients for whom propranolol is prescribed are also unable to swallow solid dosage forms, leading practitioners to seek alternative dosing options; specifically oral suspensions in the strength that is most appropriate for the patient, using a vehicle that will mask the bitter taste of propranolol powder, while remaining alcohol, sorbitol and sugar-free when required.
Int J Pharm Compd. 2012 Nov-Dec;16(6):513-5.
Can J Hosp Pharm. 2013 Mar;66(2):118-24.
Aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid are antifibrinolytic agents with differing potencies. When patients suffer from recurrent nosebleeds, a nasal spray can be customized to meet each patient’s specific needs.
The Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center recommends the use of compounded aminocaproic acid nasal spray 250 mg/ml, 1 spray to the affected nostril every 4 hours while awake for 7 days following a nosebleed.
For relief of severe epistaxis, tranexamic acid injection has been applied topically to the nasal mucosa, as a spray or by packing the nasal cavity with a gauze strip that has been soaked in the solution. The NIH is conducting a clinical trial known as North American Study of Epistaxis in HHT (NOSE) and is currently recruiting participants to carefully examine the efficacy and safety of 3 nasal sprays, compared to placebo, for the treatment of HHT (Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia) related nosebleeds. As per this study, tranexamic acid can be compounded as a 10% nasal spray, used as 0.1 ml spray in each nostril twice daily for 12 weeks (total dose of tranexamic acid is 40 mg/day).
Arch Oral Biol. 2012 May;57(5):429-35. Epub 2012 Jan 5.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2012 Mar;39(3):265-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2012.05673.x.
PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e25224. Epub 2011 Oct 13.
Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;22(3):137-41. Epub 2009 Feb 12.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2010 Aug;107(2):669-75. Epub 2010 Mar 22.
Curr Mol Med. 2012 February; 12(2): 163–176.
Topical Therapy to Reduce Infantile Hemangiomas
Infantile hemangiomas (IH), also known as “strawberry marks,” are collections of blood vessels caused by increased cell division and growth. A compounded topical “gel-forming solution” containing the medication timolol maleate has been reported as a potentially effective treatment for superficial IH. The best response was achieved with the superficial type of hemangioma, using a solution of 0.5% timolol applied topically twice daily for longer than 3 months. The major advantages of topical timolol are ready availability, cost, ease of administration, and minimal risk of drug-related adverse events.
Pediatr Dermatol. 2012 Jan-Feb;29(1):28-31.
Zinc stimulates the immune system and zinc deficiency increases the risk of infections. An analysis of 13 placebo-controlled studies showed strong evidence that adequate doses of zinc may reduce the duration and intensity of the common cold. Three trials used zinc acetate in daily doses of over 75 mg; the pooled results indicated a 42% reduction in the duration of colds. Contradictory results in various studies can largely be explained by the formulation of the lozenges or the variation in the total daily dose of zinc that the person obtained from the lozenges. Zinc lozenges have caused side effects such as bad taste and constipation that stopped when lozenge use was discontinued, and there is no evidence that short term occasional use would cause long term harm. Ask our compounding pharmacist about the most appropriate preparations.
Open Respir Med J. 2011; 5: 51–58.
This study finds that modified-release sildenafil reduced attack frequency in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon secondary to limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis and was well tolerated.
Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Mar;63(3):775-82. doi: 10.1002/art.30195.
Excessive sweating, or hyperhidrosis, is a socially embarrassing disorder and may negatively impact the quality of life. In order of frequency, palmar-plantar, palmar-axillary, isolated axillary, and craniofacial hyperhidrosis are distinct disorders.
Application of topical glycopyrrolate 2% “appears to be effective and safe for the treatment of excessive facial sweating in primary craniofacial and secondary gustatory hyperhidrosis following sympathectomy”.
Ten patients with compensatory sweating after sympathectomy applied one milliliter of a 2% water solution of topical glycopyrrolate once a day over the affected area and massaged for 30 seconds. Eight of the 10 treated patients dramatically improved with the topical application of glycopyrrolate. Two patients quit the treatment due to secondary effects (optical accommodative failure and dry mouth). The results of the study demonstrated that local application of glycopyrrolate might be the treatment of choice for compensatory hyperhidrosis.
“Glycopyrrolate iontophoresis is more effective than tap water iontophoresis in the treatment of palmoplantar hyperhidrosis” and “glycopyrrolate iontophoresis has both local and systemic effects on perspiration”.
Br J Dermatol. 2008 May;158(5):1094-7.
Dermatol Ther. 2008 Sep-Oct;21(5):406-8.
Australas J Dermatol. 2004 Nov;45(4):208-12.
Intranasal lidocaine 8% administered by a metered-dose spray produced prompt but temporary analgesia without serious adverse reactions in patients with second-division trigeminal neuralgia.
Br J Anaesth. 2007 Feb;98(2):275
Topical Treatment for Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers, Irritation around Stomas, and Diaper Rash
Daily application of sucralfate gel to non-infected post-phlebitis/vascular ulcers for 42 days led to complete healing in 95.6% of patients compared to only 10.9% of cases that used placebo.
Int J Mol Med. 2008 Jul;22(1):17-23.
A 10% aqueous solution of sucralfate, administered twice daily as a rectal enema or vaginal douche, was also used successfully to treat radiation-induced rectal and vaginal ulcers.
Arch Dermatol. 2000 Oct;136(10):1199-200.
Ann Pharmacother. 1999 Dec;33(12):1274-6
Clin Exp Dermatol. 2000 Nov;25(8):584-8.
Med Hypotheses. 2009 Mar;72(3):333-7. Epub 2008 Nov 28.